使用 ELK 集中管理 Spring Boot 应用日志

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日志的重要性

为什么重要

  • 运维:医生给病人看病,日志就是病人对自己病情的陈述
  • 恶意攻击、恶意注册、刷单、恶意密码猜测等

面对的挑战

  • 关注点很多,任何一个点都有可能引起问题
  • 日志分散在很多机器,出了问题时,才发现日志被删了
  • 很多运维人员是消防员,哪里有问题去哪里

集中化日志管理

日志搜索 > 格式化分析 > 检索与可视化 > 风险告警

快速搭建 ELK 集成环境

技术选型

那么,ELK 到底是什么呢?“ELK”是三个开源项目的首字母缩写,这三个项目分别是:

  • E(Elasticsearch)是一个搜索和分析引擎。
  • L(Logstash)是服务器端数据处理管道,能够同时从多个来源采集数据,转换数据,然后将数据发送到诸如 Elasticsearch 等“存储库”中。
  • K(Kibana)则可以让用户在 Elasticsearch 中使用图形和图表对数据进行可视化。

快速部署

使用 Docker 部署上面的基础环境,参考配置文件 docker-compose.yml,输入以下命令进行一键部署:

# 检查配置
docker-compose config
# 启动服务(-d 后台启动)
docker-compose up -d
# 停止并清除服务
docker-compose down

配置 Logstash

参考配置文件 logstash-config.conf,示例如下:

input {
tcp {
mode => "server"
host => "0.0.0.0"
port => 8080
codec => json_lines
}
}
output {
elasticsearch {
hosts => "elasticsearch:9200"
# 索引名需参考 index templates 的配置,如:logs-*-*
# index => "app-logs-%{app_name}-%{+YYYY.MM.dd}"
index => "app-logs-%{+YYYY.MM.dd}"
}
}

Spring Boot 集成 ELK 进行日志管理

添加依赖 Maven Central

<dependency>
<groupId>net.logstash.logback</groupId>
<artifactId>logstash-logback-encoder</artifactId>
<version>${logstash-logback-encoder.version}</version>
</dependency>

添加 logback 配置

方式一:通过 logback-spring.xml 配置

参考配置文件 logback-spring.xml,示例如下:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<configuration>
<include resource="org/springframework/boot/logging/logback/base.xml" />

<!-- 默认会被序列化到日志文档中 -->
<springProperty scope="context" name="APP_NAME" source="spring.application.name"/>

<appender name="LOGSTASH" class="net.logstash.logback.appender.LogstashTcpSocketAppender">
<destination>192.168.50.88:8880</destination>
<encoder charset="UTF-8" class="net.logstash.logback.encoder.LogstashEncoder" >
<!-- customFields 的作用是在 Logstash 配置中指定索引名字时的可选参数,日志文档中会添加这个字段 -->
<customFields>{"app_name":"${APP_NAME}"}</customFields>
</encoder>
</appender>

<root level="INFO">
<appender-ref ref="LOGSTASH" />
<appender-ref ref="CONSOLE" />
</root>

</configuration>

方式二:通过 Java Config 配置(可定制 starter)

@Slf4j
@Configuration
@ConditionalOnProperty(prefix = "elk.logstash", name = "enabled", havingValue = "true")
public class LogstashLogbackConfig {

private static final String LOGSTASH_APPENDER_NAME = "LOGSTASH";
private static final String LOGSTASH_ASYNC_APPENDER_NAME = "ASYNC_LOGSTASH";

@Value("${spring.application.name}")
private String appName;

@Autowired
private LogstashProperties logstash;

@Bean
@ConfigurationProperties(prefix = "elk.logstash")
public LogstashProperties logstash() {
return new LogstashProperties();
}

@PostConstruct
private void addLogstashAppender() {
LoggerContext loggerContext = (LoggerContext) LoggerFactory.getILoggerFactory();

log.info("Initializing LogstashAppender");
final LogstashTcpSocketAppender logstashAppender = new LogstashTcpSocketAppender();
logstashAppender.setName(LOGSTASH_APPENDER_NAME);
logstashAppender.setContext(loggerContext);
logstashAppender.addDestinations(
new InetSocketAddress(this.logstash.getHost(), this.logstash.getPort())
);

// https://github.com/logstash/logstash-logback-encoder
final LogstashEncoder logstashEncoder = new LogstashEncoder();
logstashEncoder.setIncludeContext(false);
String customFields = "{\"app_name\":\"" + this.appName +"\",\"idol\":\"yangbin\"}";
logstashEncoder.setCustomFields(customFields);

final ShortenedThrowableConverter throwableConverter = new ShortenedThrowableConverter();
throwableConverter.setRootCauseFirst(true);

logstashEncoder.setThrowableConverter(throwableConverter);
logstashAppender.setEncoder(logstashEncoder);
logstashAppender.start();

// Wrap the appender in an Async appender for performance
final AsyncAppender asyncLogstashAppender = new AsyncAppender();
asyncLogstashAppender.setContext(loggerContext);
asyncLogstashAppender.setName(LOGSTASH_ASYNC_APPENDER_NAME);
asyncLogstashAppender.setQueueSize(this.logstash.getQueueSize());
asyncLogstashAppender.addAppender(logstashAppender);
asyncLogstashAppender.start();
loggerContext.getLogger("ROOT").addAppender(asyncLogstashAppender);
}
}

通过定时器模拟随机日志

...
2021-07-25 23:00:36.552 INFO 15928 --- [ main] i.g.y.s.e.config.LogstashLogbackConfig : Initializing LogstashAppender
2021-07-25 23:00:36.813 INFO 15928 --- [ main] o.s.s.concurrent.ThreadPoolTaskExecutor : Initializing ExecutorService 'applicationTaskExecutor'
2021-07-25 23:00:37.017 INFO 15928 --- [ main] o.s.s.c.ThreadPoolTaskScheduler : Initializing ExecutorService 'taskScheduler'
2021-07-25 23:00:37.084 INFO 15928 --- [ main] o.s.b.w.embedded.tomcat.TomcatWebServer : Tomcat started on port(s): 8080 (http) with context path ''
2021-07-25 23:00:37.095 INFO 15928 --- [ scheduling-1] i.g.y.s.elk.scheduler.MockLogScheduler : [4a2fa762-9390-48f3-8478-4fcdbf6ba017] mock log event, log something...
2021-07-25 23:00:37.097 WARN 15928 --- [ scheduling-1] i.g.y.s.elk.scheduler.MockLogScheduler : [c859978e-5150-4fe4-979f-9acd7957a55a] mock log event, log something...
2021-07-25 23:00:37.097 ERROR 15928 --- [ scheduling-1] i.g.y.s.elk.scheduler.MockLogScheduler : [7625e2e6-62e9-4bbf-a998-1e741723f824] mock log event, log something...
2021-07-25 23:00:37.599 INFO 15928 --- [ scheduling-1] i.g.y.s.elk.scheduler.MockLogScheduler : [54ba65f2-05d7-4f27-ab63-bd19a0165b6b] mock log event, log something...
2021-07-25 23:00:37.599 WARN 15928 --- [ scheduling-1] i.g.y.s.elk.scheduler.MockLogScheduler : [901ca6a0-fc7b-4749-8661-4c81f7c4701d] mock log event, log something...
2021-07-25 23:00:37.599 ERROR 15928 --- [ scheduling-1] i.g.y.s.elk.scheduler.MockLogScheduler : [e2010eda-3f63-49ec-bb97-1157a2b11f01] mock log event, log something...
...

通过 Kibana 管理日志

查看由 Logstash 自动创建的索引

indices

添加 index 索引

create index pattern

define an index pattern

configure settings

通过 Discover 查看日志索引信息

discover logs

参考连接

感谢您的阅读,本文由 杨斌的博客 版权所有。如若转载,请注明出处:杨斌的博客(https://y0ngb1n.github.io/a/samples-spring-boot-distributed-log-elk.html
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